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NEP 2020 : The historic Shift in Indian Educational System

The Indian Educational system has endured a lot, having witnessed achievements and drawbacks since its onset. From Gurukul to Modern day Education, the system has been through a transitory period of gradual change. A significant alteration in the system came into notice post-partition with the advent of modern education and the inclusion of westernised thought. The system has yet to see reforms regarding quality education and the overall literacy rate. According to a 2019 census, the literacy rate stood around the percentage of 69.1.  


The initiation of the National Educational Policy 2020 ( NEP) has altered the institutionalised view of education to a rational and skill-based one. 

The Union Cabinet adopted the National Education Policy 2020, paving the way for large-scale, transformative changes in both the school and higher education sectors. NEP 2020 is the first education policy of the twenty-first century, succeeding the 34-year-old National Policy on Education (NPE) of 1986.


This policy, aligned with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, aspires to convert India into a thriving knowledge society and leading global information power. The NEP aims toward a holistic, flexible, and interdisciplinary approach based on the core pillars of Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability, and Accountability. The NEP is designed to adapt to 21st-century demands and targets individual growth, focusing on upskilling. 

Key Takeaways


  • The significant shift in the replacement of the pre-existing Curricular and Pedagogical Structure to (5+3+3+4);
  • There are no sharp distinctions between the arts and sciences, curricular and extracurricular activities, or vocational and academic tracks.
  • launching a national initiative on basic literacy and numeracy,
  •  Promoting multilingualism and Indian languages with a strong emphasis on regional language/mother tongue/local language will be the medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably until Grade 8 and beyond.
  • Focus on Universal Access at All Levels of schooling from pre-primary school to Grade 12, and Ensuring quality early childhood care and education for all children between 3-6 years;
  • Introduction of a new nationalised assessment centre PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development)
  • Focus and prioritisation on inclusive education – with importance directed Towards Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Groups (SEDGs);


  • Establishing State School Standards Authority (SSSA) which will be in charge of regulation of both public and private schools


  • Working together at The Centre and the States levels to increase the public investment in the Education sector to reach 6% of GDP at the earliest 


  • The Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) is to be set up to promote higher education in India, excluding medical and legal education. Formation of independent bodies for the General Education Council; funding-Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC); accreditation-National Accreditation Council (NAC); and regulation-National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC).


  •  4-year integrated stage-specific, subject-specific Bachelor of Education for teacher training
  • Formation of The National Educational Technology Venue (NETF) as an autonomous group to provide a forum for the open exchange of ideas on the use of technology to improve learning, evaluation, planning, and administration. Adequate technology integration at all levels of education